In an increasingly digitized global financial landscape, Wall Street is being shaped by the power of the media and influencers spreading misinformation or making bold predictions that can lead to risky investments with potentially disastrous consequences. As retail investors become increasingly active online and more knowledgeable about finance, they are also becoming more vulnerable to unregulated social media activity that manipulates their perception of the market and undermines their trust in the financial system.
Through sophisticated tradecraft involving burner accounts, bots, and other coordinated tactics, individuals have difficulty separating reality from false information regarding investment opportunities. As this digital development creates new challenges for investors, regulators, and financial institutions navigating the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) on Wall Street, it raises many concerns that need to be addressed for financial markets to remain secure and trustworthy.
The article examines how coordinated groups of real actors seek to promote financial products for their own personal gain. This promotion often takes place on social media, a space largely unregulated in content authenticity, presenting a dangerous risk for investors who can be influenced or misled by false or misleading advertising. Such activities can then lead users to develop an eroding trust in the stock market and its associated regulatory bodies, impeding long-term investment opportunities and fostering a risk-filled atmosphere of dissatisfaction concerning the existing financial sector.
Most importantly, understanding how coordinated groups use social media to manipulate information will help investors make more prudent decisions concerning their investments, making them better able to capitalize on available opportunities.
The Rise of Social Media Manipulation on Wall Street
The financial market relies on trust—trust between investors, trust in the information they're provided, and trust in the system as a whole. However, this trust is increasingly threatened by what can only be described as an unregulated wild west of social media influencers promoting the next great stock tip, cryptocurrency project, or “get-rich-quick” scheme. Wall Street has been impacted by this new form of digital manipulation, including sophisticated tradecraft involving burner account networks, bots, synthetic amplification, and more.
Recent artificial intelligence (AI) developments have laid the groundwork for social media users to easily manipulate public opinion through automated accounts known as 'bots.' The issue has become even more concerning when high-frequency traders have started using those same tactics to alter stock prices for their own benefit.
Additionally, algorithm trading, or algo-trading, is an increasingly popular form of stock trading that involves using computer algorithms to identify trends in the market and make trading decisions based on those trends. These decisions are made to balance profit and risk optimally. This type of trading has opened up new opportunities for sophisticated traders to take advantage of market conditions and manipulate stock prices. This is done by using algorithmic models that rely on complex mathematical equations to identify glaring discrepancies between asset pricing across multiple markets and taking quick action to exploit these price differences before they close out.
Although algo-trading itself isn't illegal per se, it has been found that some traders have taken advantage of its capabilities to manipulate stock prices via social media posts containing false information about companies or markets. The combination of social media's fallibility creating pump-and-dumping schemes and lightning-fast high-frequency trading algorithms that enter and exit the market in milliseconds can sometimes cause a snowball effect. This combination has been blamed for huge, drastic market events such as the "flash crash" of 2010 when suddenly and inexplicably the Dow Jones plunged by nearly 1000 points in five minutes.
The quick buying and selling - driven by investors' sensationalistic beliefs influenced by baseless information on social media - can cause an inflated company to be worth billions one day or catastrophic monetary losses on another. To many, this large magnitude of movement in such a short amount of time is scary and indicative of a potentially unstable stock market. Algorithm trading thus allows some well-informed traders to gain a distinct edge over their less advanced competitors and capitalize on moments of vulnerability in stock markets.
The SEC and other regulatory bodies are beginning to take steps toward addressing these issues. Still, there remains an urgent need for further action if we want our financial markets to remain reliable sources of investment opportunities rather than playgrounds for unscrupulous traders taking advantage of unsuspecting online users.
As the number of cases of social media exploitation on Wall Street continues to rise, companies and regulators must take appropriate measures to protect investors from manipulation. Monitoring social media manipulation has become an ever-growing priority for many organizations, and updating existing rules will be vital to protecting the integrity and security of our current financial markets.
Furthermore, Investing in new technologies specifically tailored toward combating the exploitation of social media can provide an additional layer of protection for investors. As this issue continues to grow in prevalence and severity, it is paramount that firms and regulators remain diligent in protecting individuals from illegal activities perpetuated by socio-media platforms.
How the Surge of Bots and Burner Account Networks Turn Social Media into a Tool for Market Manipulation
Financial markets are in the midst of a dramatic transformation. With the rise of social media, the ability to manipulate public opinion and shape market movements has become increasingly influential. Wall Street already feels the effects as users take advantage of sophisticated tradecraft and malicious automated tactics to influence price movements and trading decisions. As users access sophisticated tools such as burner accounts, bots, synthetic amplification, and false representation through social media platforms like Twitter and Reddit, it's becoming easier for them to manipulate public perception to steer prices toward their desired outcome.
The rise of quantitative funds in equity asset management has significantly disrupted the trading industry. Despite some potential uptakes in efficiency and accuracy associated with computerized strategies, the prevalence of quantitative funds managed by computers is a cause for concern due to its ubiquity in equity asset management.
According to Bloomberg, based on a collaborative analysis between Credit Suisse Group AG (CS) and JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPM), 60% of equity assets are managed by quantitative funds, indicating an immense shift away from traditional capital management strategies. Moreover, these investing robots or bots now account for most of the trading volume, leaving discretionary investors responsible for only 10%.
Alongside the proliferation of burner accounts networks that can produce thousands of fake trading identities through which traders can act without being identified due to their anonymized nature, social media may serve as an effective tool for malicious behavior concerning capital markets.
The infamous case of Gamestop sparked the era of Meme stocks and Crypto manipulation. It all began when the Reddit community WallStreetBets noticed that Gamestop, a video game retailer, was being heavily shorted by hedge funds. By buying shares and options on the stock and posting memes and messages encouraging others to join, they were able to drive up the price and trigger a short squeeze.
As more people joined in, the stock price rose ever higher. This resulted in dramatic losses for those shorting the stock, yet sizable profits for many retail investors. Famed investor Jim Cramer referred to this event as "the squeeze of a lifetime." At the same time, Bloomberg opinion columnist Matt Levine suggested it could be due to utter nihilism on behalf of the Reddit crowd or simply because it was a meme stock that "really blew up."
The GameStop saga inspired stock splits, with tickers such as APE (or AMC Preferred Equity Share) being used in reference to traders who refer to apes - made famous on a Reddit forum where they congregated and discussed their investment plans and strategies. This strategy proved incredibly successful, with retail traders helping save the theater chain AMC by purchasing and boosting its stock price, which helped it avoid bankruptcy during Covid-19.
Crypto market manipulation is becoming increasingly widespread. It shares many similarities with traditional stock exchange frauds, such as pump and dump schemes, wash trading, spoofing, stop hunting, and false rumors. However, the crypto world has an additional dimension of fraudulent behavior, including the impact of large investors – so-called "whales" – who possess massive amounts of cryptocurrencies. They can manipulate prices by artificially creating buying or selling walls to drive prices up or down.
Altcoins, cryptocurrency projects, tokens, and coins outside of Bitcoin and Ethereum, also face the same challenges. Currently, over 20,000 blockchain projects exist on the market -all vying to capture a piece of the global crypto economy.
The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies means that it can be almost impossible for regulators to detect manipulative practices since it is usually challenging to identify who is behind specific trades. This means that any kind of attempted manipulation will only be visible through price movements across different exchanges or platforms which makes it very hard to prove that any malicious activity has taken place.
Furthermore, due to the increased liquidity and high volatility in the cryptocurrency markets, whales and other manipulative traders have plenty of opportunities to take advantage of and profit from their actions without being detected.
In the wake of digitally manipulative events, various changes have been proposed to protect against their reoccurrence. In Europe, regulators have announced specific trading rules that prevent traders from using particular derivatives or share settlement practices to manipulate stocks.
With these protective measures in place, Europe is attempting to create a market with legal certainty for crypto asset issuers and provide a comprehensive set of rights and standards for service providers and consumers alike. Stefan Berger, the lawmaker, leading negotiations on behalf of the European Parliament, remarked that this initiative would "put order in the Wild West of crypto assets." It is evident that through these measures, those involved hope to prevent similar events from taking place in the future.
Analyzing the Role that Discord Communities, Twitter, and Reddit Play in Retail Investor Rallying
The role of Discord, Twitter, and Reddit in retail investor rallying has been immense. Twitter has even become essentially its own form of financial media outlet thanks to influencers having hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of followers who hang onto every word they say about particular stocks or commodities, etc., making them very powerful when it comes to influencing decisions made by individual investors around the world. Reddit also serves as an excellent platform for discussion amongst traders, exchanging ideas and debating each other's points regarding certain investments, helping them make well-informed decisions.
On April 23, 2013, a state-sponsored hacking group known as the Syrian Electronic Army hijacked the Associated Press's Twitter account and falsely claimed that two explosions had occurred in the White House and that President Barack Obama was injured. As soon as this tweet was released, many traders started to panic, leading to what E-Trade called "the most active two minutes in stock market history." Automated trading algorithms were responsible for most of the trading volumes during these two minutes, which saw 136 billion dollars wiped away from the S&P 500 index. Similarly, crude oil prices and Treasury bond yields also dropped at an alarming rate.
However, after another three minutes, markets could fully recover due to a combination of factors, such as other traders quickly realizing it was false information and news outlets retracting it after they had verified its inaccuracy. This incident serves to illustrate how influential social media platforms can be on markets when incorrect information is circulated at a rapid pace by millions of individuals. Since this incident occurred in 2013, there have been countless other examples of retail investors being swayed by news on social media platforms like Discord communities, Twitter, and Reddit with varying degrees of success or failure.
Regarding Reddit's history with stock manipulation, one of the most notable examples is the vibrant subreddit WallStreetBets, where retail investors coalesced to discuss stocks and share tips for a huge success. This phenomenon has left many market watchers and commentators scratching their heads as to what caused such a massive rally on one particular stock over such a short period of time.
At its core, WallStreetBets was not only responsible for the GameStop rally but is also indicative of the more significant trend of retail investors taking charge of the stock market. This shift towards independent traders has been made possible by social media platforms such as Twitter and Reddit, allowing retail investors to come together to gain an edge in the stock market. WallStreetBets was able to leverage these platforms to coordinate their strategy and find other traders who were interested in buying up shares of GameStop.
However, not all participants on WallStreetBets had altruistic intentions; some may have been using opportunistic tactics like pump-and-dump schemes or other forms of market manipulation. Nonetheless, we cannot deny that this subreddit was instrumental in propelling GameStop's stock price to be almost 2000% higher over a few weeks—a previously unheard-of feat in modern financial markets.
The Recent SEC Charges of Seven Social Media Influencers for Manipulating Stock Prices
The United States Securities and Exchange Commission recently charged seven "social media influencers" who had amassed hundreds of thousands of followers on Twitter and Discord with securities fraud. The individuals, who allegedly manipulated stock prices to reap at least $100 million in ill-gotten gains, had participated in a scheme to drive up the cost of stocks by using social media posts that they made to look as though they came from unbiased sources. Furthermore, the SEC issued a charge against an eighth individual for allegedly aiding and abetting the scheme.
The influencers created a network of accounts on Twitter and Discord, which were used to post purportedly impartial investment advice about low-priced stocks. However, in reality, these accounts were controlled by the seven individuals and their cohorts. By promoting certain stocks artificially inflated their prices, causing unwitting investors to purchase them at inflated prices. When the price peaked, the influencers sold off their holdings for huge profits before other investors realized what was happening.
In light of this potential scenario, it is essential to keep in mind the complexities surrounding celebrity endorsements when considering future investments. This case is yet another reminder that investors should be doubly aware when it comes to following investment advice from online sources or even celebrities who may have ulterior motives behind their recommendations or endorsements. The SEC's complaint serves as a warning: those engaging in fraudulent activity should be aware that we will vigorously pursue all involved in such schemes – whether they are using traditional investments or emerging technologies like social media platforms.
Examining the Long-Term Impact of Social Media Manipulation on Investment Trends
The long-term impact of social media manipulation on investment trends is a significant concern for many in the financial industry. The use of deceptive synthetic media has the potential to wreak havoc on the markets and cause lasting damage to investors.
Broadcast synthetic media, which amplifies pre-existing narratives, can be used to create false information that can influence people's decisions about investing their money. This can have devastating effects, not only on the individuals who have been duped into making bad investments but also on financial institutions and regulators whose job is to protect citizens from fraud.
What makes deceptive synthetic media so dangerous is its ability to amplify pre-existing narratives and reach large numbers of people quickly while avoiding detections by sophisticated algorithms. With this powerful tool at hand, bad actors could distort markets with misinformation or create fear among investors by spreading rumors about particular stocks or industries.
This could result in cascading effects where the fear created spreads beyond the initial target companies into broader markets and leads to massive selloffs. Such attacks have been seen in the past, where malicious actors exploited existing tensions over Brexit to manipulate European markets with false news stories that sent shockwaves across global investing circles.
For these reasons, we must remain vigilant against deceptive synthetic media and its potential uses when manipulating investment trends or deceiving investors so that we may protect innocent people from incurring unnecessary losses due to fraudulent activity or misleading information online.
Combating Media Manipulation with Advanced AI Technologies
Being at the forefront of combating today's media and market manipulation requires cutting-edge technology to help companies monitor and identify inauthentic activities, high-risk actors, and communities engaging in market manipulation. It also involves tracking market manipulation across social media platforms such as Discord, Reddit, and Twitter.
Higher fidelity analytics tuned to understand a new class of risk signals is essential to help companies combat media manipulation by monitoring manipulation and inauthentic activity of stocks, crypto projects, and other investments. Through advanced AI and machine learning, organizations can detect emerging fraudulent and manipulative activity related to stocks, crypto projects, or other investments, which can restore trust in the market among financial institutions, regulators, and individual investors.
Blackbird’s Constellation Platform can monitor and assess user and post-activity evolution over time to detect any discrepancies in activity patterns between users, ensuring any suspicious activities are flagged before it causes significant reputational or financial damage to the organization involved. The ultimate goal is to restore trust and reduce potential financial losses due to market manipulations on digital platforms, allowing businesses and investors alike the peace of mind of knowing that their investments are secure from malicious actors online attempting to manipulate markets for their own gain.
Blackbird.AI helps organizations detect and respond to threats that cause reputational and financial harm. Powered by their AI-Driven Narrative & Risk Intelligence Constellation Platform, organizations can proactively understand risks and threats to their reputation in real-time. Blackbird.AI was founded by a team of experts from artificial intelligence, and national security, with a mission to defend authenticity and fight narrative manipulation. Recognized by Forrester as a "Top Threat Intelligence Company," Blackbird.AI's technology is used by many of the world's largest organizations for strategic decision making
BALANCING THE COMPLEXITIES OF ONLINE DISCOURSE
While all these recommendations seem to be sound, the likelihood that these measures can be agreed upon and implemented are becoming increasingly less likely in the U.S. and around the world. In fact, we have been moving in the opposite direction. Platforms have begun to roll back access for research communities, decrease moderation around misinformation, or strike down moderation altogether in the name of freedom of expression. The very notion of banning a popular platform in the U.S. would have seemed unthinkable a few short years ago, with organizations like the ACLU strongly voicing that a ban on TikTok would violate the First Amendment.